Cancer Screening Package

Cancer Screening Package


Tumor markers are also called cancer blood tests. Tumor markers are substances produced by cancer cells or produced in response to cancer. Sometimes they also increase in benign diseases. In fact, most tumor markers are also produced in small amounts in healthy cells. However, cancer-specific production is much higher, so they are used in the diagnosis and follow-up of cancer. However, it should be noted that these tests are not 100% reliable, so have the scans recommended by your doctor according to your age, gender and risk factors.

COLORECTAL CANCER


Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): CEA level can be found to be high in colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung (especially small cell), breast, prostate, stomach and ovarian cancers. It is particularly useful in monitoring treatment response and disease progression in colon cancer. The highest CEA level is seen in patients with colon cancer with liver and bone metastases. CEA level has also been shown to increase in many non-cancer diseases such as smoking, alcohol-induced hepatic cirrhosis, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, emphysema, rectal polyp, and benign breast disease.

CA 19-9: Its level is increased in all gastrointestinal system cancers (pancreatic cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, etc.) and other adenocarcinomas. It is the most frequently elevated tumor marker in pancreatic cancer. It may also be elevated in benign conditions such as acute and chronic pancreatitis, cholangitis, and cirrhosis.

LUNG CANCER


Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): CEA level can be found to be high in colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung (especially small cell), breast, prostate, stomach and ovarian cancers. It is particularly useful in monitoring treatment response and disease progression in colon cancer. The highest CEA level is seen in patients with colon cancer with liver and bone metastases. CEA level has also been shown to increase in many non-cancer diseases such as smoking, alcohol-induced hepatic cirrhosis, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, emphysema, rectal polyp, and benign breast disease.

Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE): It is a type of enolase found in neural tissue, neuroendocrine system cells and APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) tissues. NSE is indicative of tumors of neuroendocrine origin, such as small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, carcinoids, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, melanoma, and pancreatic islet tumors. It is an important indicator especially for small cell cancer of the lung.

ACTH: Cushing’s syndrome is the most common endocrine syndrome in patients with carcinoma, with half of these patients mostly oat or small cell lung cancer, 10% thymus, 10% pancreas, 5% medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and 5% He has a neural cleft tumor. APUDomas, a group of embryological tumors of endocrine organs, also synthesize ACTH.

Calcitonin: Calcitonin secreted from the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid is an ideal tumor marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma arising from it. It is useful in monitoring treatment and detecting recurrence. Elevated plasma calcitonin levels are also observed in lung (regardless of histological type), colon, breast and pancreatic cancers. Chromogranin A: It is increased in tumors of neuroendocrine origin. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of carcinoid tumor, pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, endocrine pancreatic tumor, small cell lung cancer. Apart from tumor-induced increases, it may also increase in kidney failure, liver disease, atrophic gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gastric protective drug use and stress situations.

GASTRIC CANCER


Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): CEA level can be found to be high in colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung (especially small cell), breast, prostate, stomach and ovarian cancers. It is particularly useful in monitoring treatment response and disease progression in colon cancer. The highest CEA level is seen in patients with colon cancer with liver and bone metastases. CEA level has also been shown to increase in many non-cancer diseases such as smoking, alcohol-induced hepatic cirrhosis, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, emphysema, rectal polyp, and benign breast disease.

CA 72-4: It is primarily found in gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas and in ovarian and breast tissues. A large percentage of patients with metastatic gastric cancer have also been shown to have elevated levels of CA 72-4 as compared to CEA or CA 19-9. In addition, in some benign conditions (pancreatitis, cirrhosis, pulmonary diseases, rheumatoid diseases, gynecological diseases, gastrointestinal system diseases, etc.) CA 72-4 level may increase.

CA 19-9: Its level is increased in all gastrointestinal system cancers (pancreatic cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, etc.) and other adenocarcinomas. It is the most frequently elevated tumor marker in pancreatic cancer. It may also be elevated in benign conditions such as acute and chronic pancreatitis, cholangitis, and cirrhosis.

PANCREATIC CANCER


Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): CEA level can be found to be high in colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung (especially small cell), breast, prostate, stomach and ovarian cancers. It is particularly useful in monitoring treatment response and disease progression in colon cancer. The highest CEA level is seen in patients with colon cancer with liver and bone metastases. CEA level has also been shown to increase in many non-cancer diseases such as smoking, alcohol-induced hepatic cirrhosis, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, emphysema, rectal polyp, and benign breast disease.

CA 19-9: Its level is increased in all gastrointestinal system cancers (pancreatic cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, etc.) and other adenocarcinomas. It is the most frequently elevated tumor marker in pancreatic cancer (sensitivity 70-95%). The amount of increase is not related to tumor mass, but the test may be useful in monitoring the course of the disease. It may also be elevated in benign conditions such as acute and chronic pancreatitis, cholangitis, and cirrhosis. While CA 19-9 levels typically do not exceed 120 U/ml in patients with pancreatitis, they are much higher in patients with pancreatic cancer.

CA 72-4: It is primarily found in gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinomas and in ovarian and breast tissues. A large percentage of patients with metastatic gastric cancer have also been shown to have elevated levels of CA 72-4 as compared to CEA or CA 19-9. In addition, in some benign conditions (pancreatitis, cirrhosis, pulmonary diseases, rheumatoid diseases, gynecological diseases, gastrointestinal system diseases, etc.) CA 72-4 level may increase.

Chromogranin A: It is increased in tumors of neuroendocrine origin. It is used in the diagnosis and follow-up of carcinoid tumor, pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, endocrine pancreatic tumor, small cell lung cancer. Apart from tumor-induced increases, it may also increase in kidney failure, liver disease, atrophic gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, use of gastric protective drugs and stress.

LIVER CANCER


Fetoprotein (AFP): It is used to investigate primary liver, testicular and ovarian cancers and to monitor the response to treatment. The major non-cancerous source of high AFP levels in adults is benign liver disease. The increase in AFP, which usually accompanies benign diseases, is moderate, whereas levels greater than 500 g/L suggest the presence of hepatocellular or germ cell carcinoma.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): CEA level can be found to be high in colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung (especially small cell), breast, prostate, stomach and ovarian cancers. It is particularly useful in monitoring treatment response and disease progression in colon cancer. The highest CEA level is seen in patients with colon cancer with liver and bone metastases. CEA level has also been shown to increase in many non-cancer diseases such as smoking, alcohol-induced hepatic cirrhosis, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, emphysema, rectal polyp, and benign breast disease.

CA 19-9: Its level is increased in all gastrointestinal system cancers (pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, etc.) and other adenocarcinomas. It is the most frequently elevated tumor marker in pancreatic cancer). It may also be elevated in benign conditions such as acute and chronic pancreatitis, cholangitis, and cirrhosis.

CA 15-3: It is used in the diagnosis, recurrence and treatment follow-up of patients with breast cancer. It may be useful in predicting disease recurrence and determining response to treatment. In addition to breast cancer, high values can be detected in pancreatic, lung, ovarian, colorectal and liver cancers and benign liver and breast diseases. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP): Originates from the liver, bone, and placenta. The main source of ALP found in the serum of normal adults is the liver and bile ducts. It can help detect primary cancers in the bone and liver and metastases to these organs. In diseases such as leukemia that bypasses the liver, there are significant increases in ALP proportional to the extent of liver involvement.

Ferritin: Ferritin, an iron storage protein, has clinical value in iron metabolism disorders and some cancers. It is important in acute leukemia, liver cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma. Other causes of increase include blood transfusion, iron therapy, acute and chronic diseases of the liver, inflammations, breast, esophagus and head and neck cancers.

Ovarian Cancer


CA 125: Increases in 80-90% of patients with ovarian cancer. Values higher than the normal limit are seen in women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, in the first trimester of pregnancy, and in benign diseases such as endometriosis, salpingitis, uterine myoma, cirrhosis, hepatitis and pancreatitis. In addition, increased CA 125 values can be observed in cancers of other organs such as breast or lung. It is used to monitor the response to treatment in ovarian cancer. It is not used as a screening test because it increases in benign conditions.

Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH): AMH, which is a reliable marker in evaluating ovarian reserve and functions, is also used in the research of granulosa cell tumors. It is a highly sensitive marker in showing the efficacy of surgery in the postoperative period and disease recurrence in patients who have been operated for granulosa cell tumor.

Inhibins (Inhibin A and B): CA 125 is significant for epithelial tumors of the ovary. It is not sensitive enough to investigate granulosa cell tumors. For this, Total Inhibin or Inhibin A + Inhibin B can be checked. Inhibin measurement with CA 125 can reveal 95% of ovarian cancers.

CA 15-3: In addition to breast cancer, high values can also be detected in pancreatic, lung, ovarian, colorectal and liver cancers and benign liver and breast diseases.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG): Usually measured to confirm pregnancy and diagnose ectopic pregnancy, hCG is widely used in the diagnosis and clinical monitoring of gestational trophoblastic pathologies such as mole hydatiform, choriocarcinoma and placental trophoblastic tumors. Along with AFP, it is also used in the diagnosis and monitoring of some germ cell tumors of the ovary and testis.

THYROID CANCER


Calcitonin: Calcitonin secreted from the parafollicular C cells of the thyroid is an ideal tumor marker in medullary thyroid carcinoma arising from it. It is useful in monitoring treatment and detecting recurrence. High plasma calcitonin levels are found in lung (regardless of histological type), colon, breast and pancreatic cancers. However, it is not suitable for screening for cancers other than thyroid cancer.

Thyroglobulin: Thyroglobulin, a storage protein in the thyroid gland, is important in the monitoring of patients with thyroid cancer and especially in monitoring patients receiving radioactive iodine therapy or after thyroid surgery. It is important in the diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer. Other causes of increase include thyroid needle biopsy, thyrotoxicosis, thyroiditis and thyroid adenoma.

Neuron Specific Enolase (NSE): It is a type of enolase found in neural tissue, neuroendocrine system cells and APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) tissues. NSE is indicative of tumors of neuroendocrine origin, such as small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, carcinoids, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, melanoma, and pancreatic islet tumors.