Maternity and Paternity Test
All living things have DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid). DNA is the structure in every cell that carries genetic information about the organism of every living thing.
Human DNA consists of 46 chromosomes and inherits half from the mother and half from the father. In fact, 99.9% of human DNA is alike, and only 0.1% allows people to be identified, which in molecular biology is referred to as a Variable Number of Contiguous Repeats.
DNA test was started to be used in 1985 and enlightened people in many fields. For example; Used in paternity testing. During the paternity test, a reference sample is taken from the father and the child. In order for this test to be known for sure, samples are taken from 15 different gene regions, which are of course valid for the blood test. If the genes in these regions are compared and tested are the same, 99.9% of the children will be fathered, or if these regions are not the same, 0% will be found, which means he is not the father.
It is not necessary to draw blood from the mother in the paternity test, but if it is taken, the possibility of the child being mixed in the hospital (albeit with a low probability) is eliminated. At the same time, DNA test -paternity test- is made from hair, oral mucosa (this is the best method, especially in court cases, items such as toothbrushes, pacifiers for babies can be used as references) and blood.
It should also be noted that in a very low probability, an egg can be fertilized with two male sperm and a child can have two biological fathers, this is called heteropaternal superfecundation in the medical field. This is a probability, albeit a one percent probability, and there are rare examples in the world. It was last seen in Turkey in 2010 and in the USA in 2015.